Biology Terms – Junior Cert Higher Level

Junior CertificateScienceHL

  • absorption – passing of digested food into the bloodstream in the small intestine.
  • acid rain – rain water with a ph of less than 5.5.acid rain damages the roots of trees and causes fish kills.
  • aerobic respiration – respiration where oxygen is used
  • word equation of aerobic respiration – glucose+oxygen-energy+water+carbon dioxide
  • alveoli – air sacs in the lungs that control gaseous exchange
  • antagonistic muscles – pairs of muscles that work in opposition to each other eg biceps and triceps in arm
  • anther – produces the pollen,which contains the male gamete.the male organs are called the stamens.the anther is the top part of the stamen
  • antibiotics – chemicals produced from fungi and bacteria that cure diseases by fungi and bacteria.
  • antibiotics have no effect on ? – viruses
  • antibodies – are produced by our white blood cells to protect us against viruses and bacteria.
  • asexual reproduction – involves only one parent and there is no gametes eg strawberry
  • assimilation – the body cells use for energy, growth and repair
  • bacteria – very small cells.can be helpful or harmful
  • ball and socket joint – allow movement in many planes hip and shoulder
  • biotechnology – using living things to produce useful products for humans
  • bone joint – connection between two bones
  • capillaries – small blood vessels that connect arteries to veins
  • cell – basic living unit of plant or animal
  • chromosomes – thread like structure found in nucleus of a cell
  • amount of chromosomes in human – 46 ,23 pairs
  • chromosomes in sex cell – 23
  • conservation – the protection,preservation and careful use of our natural resources
  • consumers – organisms that feed directly or indirectly on green plants
  • decomposers – organisms that feed on dead plants and animals eg earthworms ,bacteria,fungi
  • xylem vessels – carry water up a plant from the roots
  • tropism – growth of a plant toward certain stimulus
  • parasites – feed off a living organsim eg viruses
  • platelets – clot the blood
  • plasma – transport food
  • methods of seed dispersal – wind ,animal,water,self-dispersal
  • substrate – is substance acted on by an enzyme
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