Carbohydrates Terms for Leaving Cert HL Home Economics

Leaving CertificateHome EconomicsHL

  • Elemental CompositionCarbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O)
  • Photosynthesis – How plants manufacture carbohydrates from CO2 and H2O in the presence of light
  • Chemical formula for photosynthesis – 6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight + chlorophyll = C6H12O6
  • Classifications of carbohydrates – Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
  • Monosaccharides – Single sugar molecules
  • Chemical formula for monosaccharides – C6H12O6
  • Disaccharides – Two monosaccharides chemically linked together with the loss of a H2O molecule
  • Disaccharide chemical formula – C12H22O11
  • Polysaccharides – Long chains of many sugar units joined together chemically, each with the loss of a water molecule
  • Polysaccharide chemical formula – (C6H10O5)n
  • (n=number of monosaccharides in the chain)
  • SucroseGlucose + Fructose
  • Lactose – Glucose + Galactose
  • Maltose – Glucose + Glucose
  • Sources of carbohydrates – Sugars, Starches, NSP
  • Examples of monosaccharides – Fructose, Glucose, Galactose
  • Examples of disaccharides – Lactose, Maltose, Sucrose
  • Examples of polysaccharidesStarch, Cellulose, Pectin, Glycogen
  • Examples of NSP – Pectin, Cellulose, Gums
  • Formula for condensation reaction – C6H1206 + C6H1206 = C12H24012 – H20 = C12H22O11
  • Sources of sugars – cakes, biscuits, jam, honey, soft drinks
  • Sources of starch – Potatoes, Root vegetables, Cereals
  • Sources of NSP – Fruit skins, Plant seeds
  • Culinary uses of sugar – Sweetner, Preservative, Caramelisation, Fermentation, Gel formation, Colour
  • Culinary uses of starch – Thickener, Hygroscopic, Dextrinisation
  • Culinary uses of polysaccharides – Gel forming, Thickener
  • NSP – Non starch polysacchardie
  • Carmelisation – When sugar is heated it melts and then turns into a caramel
  • Dextrinisation – When carbohydrate foods are heated short chains are produced
  • Hygroscopic – When starch absorbs moisture e.g. biscuits will go soggy
  • Energy value of 1g of carbohydrate – 4 kCals
  • Amylase – This enzyme changes starch to maltose
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