Chemistry Terms for Junior Certificate

Junior CertificateScienceHL

Solvent – is a substance that dissolves other materials to form a solution

A solution – is a mixture of a solute and solvent

A Dilute Solution – has a small amount of solute in a large amount of solvent

A Concentrated Solution – has a large amount of solute in a small amount of solvent

Saturated Solution – is one that contains as much dissolved solute as possible at a given temperature

Solubility – is the mass in grams that will dissolve in a 100 grams of solvent at a fixed temperature

Crystallisation – Is the formation of crystals when a hot saturated solution is cooled or when the solvent is allowed to evaporate from the solution

Filtration – is the method of separating an insoluble solid from a liquid using a material that allows the liquid to pass through but not the solid

Evaporation – is the changing of a liquid to a gas

Acids Turn Litmus Paper – Blue to Red

Bases turn Litmus Paper – Red to Blue

Indicator – Shows by means of a colour change whether a substance is acidic or basic

Chemical in Dropping Funnel to make Oxygen – Hydrogen Peroxide

Catalyst used to make Oxygen – Manganese Dioxide

Catalyst – is a substance that changes the speed of a chemical reaction but is not used up itself

Chemical in Dropping Funnel to make Carbon DioxideHydrochloric Acid

Solid to make Carbon Dioxide – Marble Chips

Hard Water – Does not form a lather easily with soap

Electrolysis – is the splitting of a compound into its elements using electricity

Apparatus used to split Water – Hoffman Voltameter

A Salt – is formed when the Hydrogen in an acid is replaced by a metal

Fossil Fuels – are fuels that were formed from the remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago

Hydrocarbons – are compounds that consist of Hydrogen and Carbon only

An Atom – is the smallest particle of an element that still retains the properties of that element

Atomic Number – of an atom is the number of protons in the nucleus of that atom

Mass Number – of an atom is the number of protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus of that atom

Isotopes – are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

A Molecule – is group of atoms joined together. It is the smallest particle of an element or compound that can exist independently

Octet Rule – When bonding occurs, atoms try to have 8 electrons in the outer orbit

Covalent Bond – is a bond that consists of shared electrons

An Ion – is a charged atom or group of atoms

Ionic Bond – is the force of attraction between positive and negative ions in a compound

Alloy – Is a mixture of metals

Corrosion of Iron and steel is called – Rusting

Test for Hydrogen Gas – Burns with a Pop

Test for Oxygen Gas – Relights a glowing splint

Test for Carbon Dioxide – Turns Limewater Milky

Water turns Cobalt Chloride – Blue to Pink

Water turns Anhydrous Copper Sulfate – White to Blue

Formula for Sodium Hydroxide – NaOH

When Burning a Hydrocarbon the products are – Water and Carbon Dioxide

Carbon Dioxide turns moist Litmus Paper – Blue to Red

Non-Biodegradable – will not break down by itself

Mixture – Two or more substances mingled together but not chemically combined

Residue – Is the solid that remains on the filter paper

Another name for bases – Alkalis

Malleable – Metals can be banged into shape

Ductile – Metals can be stretched into wires

Sonorous – Metals make a ringing noise

Main constituent of Natural Gas – Methane

Ionic Compounds – Are good conductors of electricity

Noble Gases are unreactive because – they have 8 electrons in their outer shell

Raw material used to make plastics – Crude Oil

Chemical name for marble – Calcium Carbonate

Sulfuric Acid is added to Water during Electrolysis to… – Improve its conductivity

Group 2 elements are known as the – Alkaline Earth Metals

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