Leaving Cert Biology Cell Structure

Leaving CertificateBiology

  • Protoplasm – All the living parts of an animal cell/ nucleus,cytoplasm
  • Plant Cell Wall function – Support, strengthen cell, cellulose in plant cells. Fully permeable
  • Vacuole – Support, strengthen, stores materials( cell sap: salts, sugars, pigments) Mostly in plants
  • Chloroplasts – Green structures in a plant where photosynthesis takes place
  • Cytoplasm – Living material outside nucleus, where reactions take place. Jelly like liquid, suspending mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes.
  • Cell/ Plasma Membrane – Composed of phospholipids and proteins. Surrounds cell, retains cell contents, controls what passes through the membrane.
  • Nucleus – Control center of the cell. Containing strands of DNA arranged into chromsomes. Humans have 46 chromosomes.
  • Chromatin – Chromosomes when they are not dividing
  • Nuclear Pores – Allows mRNA (messenger) to pass out of the nucleus
  • Nucleolus/nucleoliArea in Nucleus where ribosomes are made
  • Mitochondria – Supply energy to cell. respiration/muscle cells and liver cells in animals
  • Ribosomes – Tiny bead like structures made of RNA and protein. Their function is to make protein by combining a sequence of amino acids
  • Plant Cells – Cell walls, chloroplasts, chlorophyll, large vacuoles
  • Animal cells – no cell walls, no chloroplasts, no chlorophyll, small if any vacuoles
  • Prokaryotic Cell – Do not have a nucleus or membrane enclosed organelles. Single celled organisms like bacteria. Small and primitive.
  • Eukaryotic Cells – have a nucleus and cell organelles all of which are enclosed by membranes. Larger more advanced. Plant, animal, fungi & amobea
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