Leaving Cert. Biology Enzymes Terms
- Metabolism – the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in a cell
- Reactants – substances that participate in a reaction
- Products – substances that form as a result of a reaction
- ATP – Adenosine Tri Phosphate. Common currency of energy that carries energy that can be used in many types of reactions. More activity = more ATP
- ADP – Adenosine Di Phosphate. Binds with a phosphate molecule to form ATP
- Enzyme – A protein molecule that functions as an organic catalyst to speed up a chemical reaction w/o being affected by the reaction. Can speed possible reactions. Lower energy of activation.
- Substrates – The reactants in an enzymatic reaction
- Active site – a small part of the enzyme that binds with the substrate
- Induced fit model – a model where the enzyme is induced to undergo a slight alteration to achieve optimum fit
- Factors affecting enzymatic speed – substrate concentration, temperature, pH, enzyme concentration
- Denature – The state of an enzyme when it has been irreversibly damaged and has changed shape
- Irreversible – when the enzyme permanently inactivates/destroys and enzyme. Poisons can cause this.
- Catabolism – Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy
- Anabolism – Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials
- Factors affecting enzymes – enzyme concentration; substrate concentration; temperatures ;pH
- Optimum pH – The pH at which an enzyme-catalyzed reaction proceeds at the fastest rate
- Optimum Temperature – The temperature at which the enzyme’s activity is at its GREATEST.
- Buffer – substance that maintains a fairly constant pH in a solution
- Hydrogen Peroxide – Substrate used in enzyme experiments
- Immobilised – When enzymes are ‘fixed’ to small resin beads they are said to be …?
- Sodium Alginate – Chemical used to immobilise enzymes
- Catalase – enzyme found in most plant and animal cells that decomposes hydrogen peroxide
- Amylase – The enzyme that breaks down starch and is found in saliva
- Lipase – enzyme that breaks down fat
- Pepsin – Enzyme that breaks down proteins in the stomach
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