Leaving Cert. Biology Enzymes Terms

Leaving CertificateBiology

  • Metabolism – the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in a cell
  • Reactants – substances that participate in a reaction
  • Products – substances that form as a result of a reaction
  • ATP – Adenosine Tri Phosphate. Common currency of energy that carries energy that can be used in many types of reactions. More activity = more ATP
  • ADP – Adenosine Di Phosphate. Binds with a phosphate molecule to form ATP
  • Enzyme – A protein molecule that functions as an organic catalyst to speed up a chemical reaction w/o being affected by the reaction. Can speed possible reactions. Lower energy of activation.
  • Substrates – The reactants in an enzymatic reaction
  • Active site – a small part of the enzyme that binds with the substrate
  • Induced fit model – a model where the enzyme is induced to undergo a slight alteration to achieve optimum fit
  • Factors affecting enzymatic speed – substrate concentration, temperature, pH, enzyme concentration
  • Denature – The state of an enzyme when it has been irreversibly damaged and has changed shape
  • Irreversible – when the enzyme permanently inactivates/destroys and enzyme. Poisons can cause this.
  • Catabolism – Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy
  • Anabolism – Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials
  • Factors affecting enzymes – enzyme concentration; substrate concentration; temperatures ;pH
  • Optimum pH – The pH at which an enzyme-catalyzed reaction proceeds at the fastest rate
  • Optimum Temperature – The temperature at which the enzyme’s activity is at its GREATEST.
  • Buffer – substance that maintains a fairly constant pH in a solution
  • Hydrogen Peroxide – Substrate used in enzyme experiments
  • Immobilised – When enzymes are ‘fixed’ to small resin beads they are said to be …?
  • Sodium Alginate – Chemical used to immobilise enzymes
  • Catalase – enzyme found in most plant and animal cells that decomposes hydrogen peroxide
  • Amylase – The enzyme that breaks down starch and is found in saliva
  • Lipase – enzyme that breaks down fat
  • Pepsin – Enzyme that breaks down proteins in the stomach
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