Leaving Cert. Biology Respiration Terms

Leaving CertificateBiology

  • External Respiration – The way in which organisms exchange gases with their surroundings
  • Internal Respiration – The controlled release of energy from food
  • Aerobic Respiration – The controlled release of energy from food using oxygen
  • Glycolysis – The partial breakdown of glucose into a 3 carbon sugar pyruvate. It occurs in the cytosol.
  • Anaerobic Respiration – The controlled release of energy from food without using oxygen
  • Alcohol Fermentation – The partial breakdown of glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide
  • Biotechnology – The use of living organisms or their components to manufacture useful products
  • Bioreactor – A vessel in which bioprocessing takes place
  • Sodium Alginate – Chemical used to immobilise enzymes
  • Kreb’s Cycle – Acetyl Co A is broken down into CO2 with the release of energy. This stage of respiration takes place in the mitochondria.
  • Lactic Acid Fermentation – Glycolysis is followed by the breakdown of the 3 carbon pyruvate into 2 lactic acid molecules with no release of carbon dioxide.
  • Electron Transport System – Energy released from NADH is used to for ATP. Low energy electrons combine with Hydrogen and Oxygen to form water. It occurs in the membranes of the mitochondria.
  • 2 ATP – The number of ATP molecules produced during glycolysis
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