Minerals and Water – Junior Cert Home Economics Terms

Junior CertificateHome Economics

  • Calcium – A very important mineral which works with Vitamin D to give us strong bones and teeth. It can be easily found in dairy products.
  • Iron – A very important mineral which helps to form haemoglobin in the red blood cells. This is needed to transport oxygen around the body and to give blood its red colour.
  • Sodium – This is another name for salt. It helps to control the water balance in the body.
  • Fluoride – This mineral helps to prevent tooth decay and can be found in toothpaste.
  • Iodine – This mineral is needed to help control metabolism in the body. In other words, the speed at which our body releases the energy from the food we eat. We find it in foods associated with the sea e.g. fish and seaweed.
  • Potassium – This mineral helps to maintain our muscles, nerves and heartbeat. It is found in most foods.
  • Phosphorus – This mineral works with calcium and vitamin D to form strong bones and teeth. It can be found in most foods.
  • Rickets – A deficiency disease in children which is associated with a lack of calcium in the diet. It results in badly deformed bones.
  • Osteomalacia – A deficiency disease in adults which is associated with a lack of calcium in the diet. It results in softening of the bones bones.
  • Osteoporosis – A deficiency disease which is associated with a lack of calcium in the diet. It results in porous and fragile bones which can break easily. It is more common in older people.
  • Dairy Products – A group of foods made from milk including, yoghurt, cheese, cream and butter. Dairy foods are rich in calcium.
  • Dental Decay – Disease where bacteria can damage the hard structure of the teeth and cause them to break down. Fluoride can help to prevent dental decay.
  • Anaemia – This is a condition where the body lacks haemoglobin. Less oxygen gets to the cells and the body feels tired and weak. It is associated with a lack of iron in the diet.
  • Haemoglobin – A red pigment found in red blood cells which is responsible for carrying oxygen around the body. It is produced by the mineral iron.
  • Offal – The edible internal organs of an animal e.g. kidneys, liver, heart.
  • Goitre – A disease caused my not eating enough iodine in the diet, in which the thyroid gland in the neck becomes very large.
  • Metabolism – Breaking down food for energy
  • Water Balance – The balance between water taken in and water lost, which keeps the body’s water content constant (the same).
  • Dehydration – An abnormally low amount of water in the body.
  • Body Temperature – The amount of heat in the body. Body temperature is 37 degrees C. Sweating helps us to regulate our body temperature.
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