Junior Certificate

Flashcard: Biology Terms – Junior Cert Higher Level

absorption – passing of digested food into the bloodstream in the small intestine. acid rain – rain water with a ph of less than 5.5.acid rain damages the roots of trees and causes fish kills. aerobic respiration – respiration where oxygen is used word equation of aerobic respiration – glucose+oxygen-energy+water+carbon… Continue Reading →

The Agricultural Revolution Notes

Background Needed because of the increase in the population and the growth of towns. Problems with the Open Field system: Fallow land No point in making improvements Lazy neighbours Diseases spread Selective breeding impossible New developments Enclosure Acts had to be passed and commissioners divided the land. Commonage gone (poor… Continue Reading →

The Circulatory System Notes

The Circulatory System The circulatory system consists of the heart and the blood vessels (veins, arteries and capillaries). Veins bring blood away from the heart. They have a wider lumen and thinner walls than arteries, and valves to prevent backflow of blood. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. they… Continue Reading →

Ancient Rome Revision Note – Junior Cert Histroy

Controlled most of Europe and North Africa. Evidence: ruins, coins, Latin documents. Towns: grid pattern, Forum (marketplace), temples, amphitheatre (gladiators, Coliseum), aqueducts (water), roads (cobbled, Apian way), circus (chariot racing), sewerage system, town walls. Baths, public and private every day. Houses: patricians lived in houses, plebeians lived in apartments. Private… Continue Reading →

Medieval Times Revision Notes – Junior Cert Histroy

General Fall of ancient Rome to Renaissance. A time of war, little interest in education, plague and a reduction in population of Europe. Feudal system: Kings granted land, called a fief, to vassals in return for soldiers. Kings, barons, knights, bishops and abbots, freemen and serfs. Knights lived on Manors…. Continue Reading →

The Renaissance – Junior Cert History

The Renaissance is the rebirth of learning. The learning of ancient Greece and Rome was rediscovered and new discoveries made. Humanism is showing great interest in human nature rather than religion. Writing in the vernacular became popular. Artists were craftsmen like other tradesmen. Why Italy? Wealth cities provided patrons of… Continue Reading →

The American War of Independence

Causes Britain wanted to tax the colonists for the 7 Years War with the French and Indians. ‘No Taxation without Representation’ and the Sons of Liberty (attacked collectors). The Navigation Acts (American exports had to go to Britain and on British ships. The Boston Massacre (5 demonstrators shot by British… Continue Reading →