The Reformation Revision Notes – Junior Cert

 Reasons for the Reformation Wealth of the Church. Owned 1/3 of German land. Tithes. Renaissance encouraged questioning. Printing press spread ideas. Kings wanted less interference. Abuses (nepotism, simony, absenteeism, pluralism, sale of indulgences etc).   Story of Martin Luther (special study) A German, studied to be a lawyer but became… Continue Reading →

The Agricultural Revolution Notes

Background Needed because of the increase in the population and the growth of towns. Problems with the Open Field system: Fallow land No point in making improvements Lazy neighbours Diseases spread Selective breeding impossible New developments Enclosure Acts had to be passed and commissioners divided the land. Commonage gone (poor… Continue Reading →

Ancient Rome Revision Note – Junior Cert Histroy

Controlled most of Europe and North Africa. Evidence: ruins, coins, Latin documents. Towns: grid pattern, Forum (marketplace), temples, amphitheatre (gladiators, Coliseum), aqueducts (water), roads (cobbled, Apian way), circus (chariot racing), sewerage system, town walls. Baths, public and private every day. Houses: patricians lived in houses, plebeians lived in apartments. Private… Continue Reading →

Medieval Times Revision Notes – Junior Cert Histroy

General Fall of ancient Rome to Renaissance. A time of war, little interest in education, plague and a reduction in population of Europe. Feudal system: Kings granted land, called a fief, to vassals in return for soldiers. Kings, barons, knights, bishops and abbots, freemen and serfs. Knights lived on Manors…. Continue Reading →

The Renaissance – Junior Cert History

The Renaissance is the rebirth of learning. The learning of ancient Greece and Rome was rediscovered and new discoveries made. Humanism is showing great interest in human nature rather than religion. Writing in the vernacular became popular. Artists were craftsmen like other tradesmen. Why Italy? Wealth cities provided patrons of… Continue Reading →

The Age of Exploration (1400 to 1750)

Before the age of exploration people believed: earth was flat, monsters, Europe at centre, boiling in south, and the world was smaller. Why people wanted new sea routes: Wealth for country Wealth for explorer To avoid Arab controlled trade routes Religion Inspired by spirit of Renaissance and The Travels of… Continue Reading →

The American War of Independence

Causes Britain wanted to tax the colonists for the 7 Years War with the French and Indians. ‘No Taxation without Representation’ and the Sons of Liberty (attacked collectors). The Navigation Acts (American exports had to go to Britain and on British ships. The Boston Massacre (5 demonstrators shot by British… Continue Reading →

The United Irishmen And The 1798 Rebellion

Background and causes Irish Parliament controlled by Protestant Ascendancy (C of I only 15% and most of the land) Penal laws left Catholics poor and uneducated. Tithes still had to be paid. The influence of the American and French revolutions The Society of United Irishmen Wolfe Tone (Dublin, Anglican Trinity… Continue Reading →

The Famine

Background Most landlords protestant. Many absentee. Gale day (landlord’s agent). Large farmers (30 acres +). Sublet to small farmers and cottiers. Spailpeens were wandering labourers. Country divided into Poor Law Unions and each had a workhouse. Only the really badly off would go there (families split up, like prison). Causes… Continue Reading →

Finding About The Past

History: the story of the past. Herodotus: father of history. Archive: documents. Museum: artefacts. Sources can be written, pictorial, oral, artefacts or ruins. Primary sources: directly from past, first hand information, from the time. Secondary sources: indirectly, second hand, after the time. Bias: using only the evidence that supports one… Continue Reading →