Junior Certificate

Sample Phrases for French Letters

Openings: Cher Paul..Marc…Jean…Papa Chère Mathilde…Tante…Grand-mère…Maman Chers Parents, Main Body Of Letter. Merci beaucoup de ta dernière lettre – Thanks for your last letter. Merci pour la carte postale que j’ai reçue hier – Thanks for the postcard I got this morning. J’ai reçu ta carte d’anniversaire hier matin – I got your birthday card yesterday morning…. Continue Reading →

Reasons why a town developed at a particular location

General Reasons: Coastal Location Focus of Route ways Bridging point settlement Defence point settlement As an Industrial town/city As a tourist town As a service centre; example: schools, hospitals, post office, Garda Station, Fire Station. Flat Land Fertile farm land; bordering river; alluvial soils; producing high yields Mountains offer shelter… Continue Reading →

Sample Higher Level French Letter

Cork, le 10 juin Cher Marc, Merci beaucoup de ta dernière lettre. Comment vas-tu et ta famille? Je m’excuse de ne pas avoir écrit depuis un mois. Comment va ton père après son accident? Je viens de finir mes examens. Je suis heureux ils sont finis. Les maths étaient faciles… Continue Reading →

The Water Cycle – Junior Cert Geography

1.The sun’s heat evaporates seawater and turns it into a gas called water vapour. 2.The light water vapour rises, cools and condenses into tiny droplets which make up cloud. 3.Further cooling and condensation results in precipitation. 4.Surface run-off(rivers) and soakage returns most of the water to the sea ( some… Continue Reading →

Flashcard: Biology Terms – Junior Cert Higher Level

absorption – passing of digested food into the bloodstream in the small intestine. acid rain – rain water with a ph of less than 5.5.acid rain damages the roots of trees and causes fish kills. aerobic respiration – respiration where oxygen is used word equation of aerobic respiration – glucose+oxygen-energy+water+carbon… Continue Reading →

The Reformation Revision Notes – Junior Cert

 Reasons for the Reformation Wealth of the Church. Owned 1/3 of German land. Tithes. Renaissance encouraged questioning. Printing press spread ideas. Kings wanted less interference. Abuses (nepotism, simony, absenteeism, pluralism, sale of indulgences etc).   Story of Martin Luther (special study) A German, studied to be a lawyer but became… Continue Reading →

The Agricultural Revolution Notes

Background Needed because of the increase in the population and the growth of towns. Problems with the Open Field system: Fallow land No point in making improvements Lazy neighbours Diseases spread Selective breeding impossible New developments Enclosure Acts had to be passed and commissioners divided the land. Commonage gone (poor… Continue Reading →

The Circulatory System Notes

The Circulatory System The circulatory system consists of the heart and the blood vessels (veins, arteries and capillaries). Veins bring blood away from the heart. They have a wider lumen and thinner walls than arteries, and valves to prevent backflow of blood. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. they… Continue Reading →