Junior Certificate

Ancient Rome Revision Note – Junior Cert Histroy

Controlled most of Europe and North Africa. Evidence: ruins, coins, Latin documents. Towns: grid pattern, Forum (marketplace), temples, amphitheatre (gladiators, Coliseum), aqueducts (water), roads (cobbled, Apian way), circus (chariot racing), sewerage system, town walls. Baths, public and private every day. Houses: patricians lived in houses, plebeians lived in apartments. Private… Continue Reading →

Medieval Times Revision Notes – Junior Cert Histroy

General Fall of ancient Rome to Renaissance. A time of war, little interest in education, plague and a reduction in population of Europe. Feudal system: Kings granted land, called a fief, to vassals in return for soldiers. Kings, barons, knights, bishops and abbots, freemen and serfs. Knights lived on Manors…. Continue Reading →

The Renaissance – Junior Cert History

The Renaissance is the rebirth of learning. The learning of ancient Greece and Rome was rediscovered and new discoveries made. Humanism is showing great interest in human nature rather than religion. Writing in the vernacular became popular. Artists were craftsmen like other tradesmen. Why Italy? Wealth cities provided patrons of… Continue Reading →

The Age of Exploration (1400 to 1750)

Before the age of exploration people believed: earth was flat, monsters, Europe at centre, boiling in south, and the world was smaller. Why people wanted new sea routes: Wealth for country Wealth for explorer To avoid Arab controlled trade routes Religion Inspired by spirit of Renaissance and The Travels of… Continue Reading →

The American War of Independence

Causes Britain wanted to tax the colonists for the 7 Years War with the French and Indians. ‘No Taxation without Representation’ and the Sons of Liberty (attacked collectors). The Navigation Acts (American exports had to go to Britain and on British ships. The Boston Massacre (5 demonstrators shot by British… Continue Reading →

The United Irishmen And The 1798 Rebellion

Background and causes Irish Parliament controlled by Protestant Ascendancy (C of I only 15% and most of the land) Penal laws left Catholics poor and uneducated. Tithes still had to be paid. The influence of the American and French revolutions The Society of United Irishmen Wolfe Tone (Dublin, Anglican Trinity… Continue Reading →

The Famine

Background Most landlords protestant. Many absentee. Gale day (landlord’s agent). Large farmers (30 acres +). Sublet to small farmers and cottiers. Spailpeens were wandering labourers. Country divided into Poor Law Unions and each had a workhouse. Only the really badly off would go there (families split up, like prison). Causes… Continue Reading →

Finding About The Past

History: the story of the past. Herodotus: father of history. Archive: documents. Museum: artefacts. Sources can be written, pictorial, oral, artefacts or ruins. Primary sources: directly from past, first hand information, from the time. Secondary sources: indirectly, second hand, after the time. Bias: using only the evidence that supports one… Continue Reading →

The Plantations in Ireland

Ireland in 1500 King was Lord of Ireland and had little control. The country was divided into 3 areas: The Pale (English speaking, common law, cattle raids) The Anglo-Irish lordships (Norman descendants, common law, some Irish customs) The Gaelic Irish lordships (Brehon law, clan owned tuath, little had changed since… Continue Reading →

Ancient Ireland

1) The Mesolithic Period (middle Stone Age 7000 BC). First settlers Evidence: Mount Sandal in Derry. Houses: circular, wooden frame tied at top, covered with hides grass or bushes. Food: nomadic hunter-gatherers (wild boar, duck, deer, fish, berries). Cooked on a spit. Clothes: hides cleaned with stone scrapers and sewn… Continue Reading →