Finding the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid

Experiment :  To use this standard sodium carbonate solution to find the concentration of (standardise) a given hydrochloric acid solution. Procedure Place 20 ml of 0.0.48 Molar sodium carbonate into a conical flask using a pipette. Add two drops of methyl red indicator. This will give a yellow colour to the solution. Note: the number of drops of indicator… Continue Reading →

Finding Solution of Sodium Hydroxide and Standardising It

Experiment :  To make up an approximate solution of sodium hydroxide and standardise it (find its exact concentration) by titration with the standard hydrochloric acid solution above. Procedure Place 20 ml of the sodium hydroxide in the conical flask. Note: Always place the base in the conical flask as they may react with the ground glass in… Continue Reading →

Determine the Percentage of Ethanoic Acid in Vinegar

Experiment : To determine the percentage of ethanoic acid in vinegar. Vinegar is a solution of ethanoic acid dissolved in water. The purpose of this titration is to find the percentage of this acid in the vinegar. Procedure Add 50 ml of vinegar to a volumetric flask using a 25 ml pipette twice. Make up the… Continue Reading →

Preparing a Standard Solution of Sodium Carbonate

Weigh the sample Weigh 1.30 g of sodium carbonate on an electronic balance, as accurately as you can. Use a clock glass. Two places of decimals would be best. Transfer to beaker Use a spatula to transfer the sample to a beaker of warm water (100ml). Rinse the clock glass. Rinse the remaining… Continue Reading →

Preparations for Acid/Base Titrations

Volumetric analysis is a well established and versatile form of quantitative chemical analysis. The purpose of this type of analysis is to use an accurately known volume and concentration of one solution to find the accurate concentration of a second. The experimental procedure which allows us to do this is called a titration. This procedure is described in… Continue Reading →

How small is an atom?

Just how small are atoms? And what’s inside them? The answers turn out to be astounding, even for those who think they know. This fast-paced animation uses spectacular metaphors (imagine a blueberry the size of a football stadium!) to give a visceral sense of the building blocks that make our… Continue Reading →

What is the shape of a molecule?

A molecule is nearly all empty space, apart from the extremely dense nuclei of its atoms and the clouds of electrons that bond them together. When that molecule forms, it arranges itself to maximize attraction of opposite charges and minimize repulsion of unlike.

Organic Chemistry – Summary

General Definitions Organic Chemistry is the study of compounds of Carbon. Hydrocarbons are carbons consisting of carbon and hydrogen only, bonded together covalently. They are used as fuel and feedstock for the chemical industry. Main Sources: Coal, Methane, Crude Oil. Structural isomers are compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. Homologous Series is defined as: A series of compounds of… Continue Reading →