Leaving Certificate

Determine the Percentage of Ethanoic Acid in Vinegar

Experiment : To determine the percentage of ethanoic acid in vinegar. Vinegar is a solution of ethanoic acid dissolved in water. The purpose of this titration is to find the percentage of this acid in the vinegar. Procedure Add 50 ml of vinegar to a volumetric flask using a 25 ml pipette twice. Make up the… Continue Reading →

Preparing a Standard Solution of Sodium Carbonate

Weigh the sample Weigh 1.30 g of sodium carbonate on an electronic balance, as accurately as you can. Use a clock glass. Two places of decimals would be best. Transfer to beaker Use a spatula to transfer the sample to a beaker of warm water (100ml). Rinse the clock glass. Rinse the remaining… Continue Reading →

Preparations for Acid/Base Titrations

Volumetric analysis is a well established and versatile form of quantitative chemical analysis. The purpose of this type of analysis is to use an accurately known volume and concentration of one solution to find the accurate concentration of a second. The experimental procedure which allows us to do this is called a titration. This procedure is described in… Continue Reading →

DNA & RNA Summary

Heredity: Is the passing on of features from parents to offspring by means of genes. Gene: Is a section of DNA that causes the production of a protein. Gene expression: Is the way in which the genetic information in a gene is decoded in the cell and used to make… Continue Reading →

Sample Phrases for French Letters

Openings: Cher Paul..Marc…Jean…Papa Chère Mathilde…Tante…Grand-mère…Maman Chers Parents, Main Body Of Letter. Merci beaucoup de ta dernière lettre – Thanks for your last letter. Merci pour la carte postale que j’ai reçue hier – Thanks for the postcard I got this morning. J’ai reçu ta carte d’anniversaire hier matin – I got your birthday card yesterday morning…. Continue Reading →

Macbeth And The Three Hags Of Fate – Essay

In many of Shakespeare’s plays there exists relationships between characters; these relationships in many cases influence the direction in which the play goes. In Shakespeare’s “Macbeth” the everlasting relationship between Macbeth and the three witches is the foundation of the entire plot. When Macbeth meets the witches, he views them… Continue Reading →

Essay on Banquo

Banquo is an often misunderstood and forgotten character in the play Macbeth. His fleeting appearances and premature murder at the request of Macbeth, have led many to label him as a mere victim of the ambition and cruelty of others. However, in reality he is not only a victim of… Continue Reading →