Leaving Certificate

All Chemistry Definitions to Learn for Leaving Certificate

The Atom Dalton’s Atomic Theory: All matter is made up of indivisible atoms which cannot be created or destroyed. William Crookes discovered the Electron. Cathode ray tube. JJ Thomson determined that electrons were negative. Found E/M ratio. Robert Millikan’s Oil drop experiment discovered size of electron’s charge. Plum Pudding Model:… Continue Reading →

The Atom

Matter is composed of very small particles which may be atoms, molecules or ions.  The History of the Atom The Greek philosophers first proposed that there were indivisible particles which they called ‘atoms’ which means ‘indivisible’ in Greek. This is where we get the word atom. John Dalton In 1808, an English chemist called John Dalton was… Continue Reading →

Earthquakes: Everything you need to know – Sample Answer

Earthquakes are caused by structures and processes that have resulted from the operation of the tectonic cycle. Earthquakes are sudden and violent shaking of the earth’s surface. The plates of the earth move due to the movement of convectional currents in the mantle below the crust. This is called as the endogenetic force as… Continue Reading →

The Character of Macbeth – Essay

Shakespeare never fails to stun an audience with a complex yet entertaining character. His play of Macbeth is no exception. One might judge Macbeth to be the valiant hero of the play, to the audiences surprise and bewilderment, he is also the villain. To create such a character requires an… Continue Reading →

Understanding Literary Genres

A PowerPoint which points out the characteristics of fiction and non-fiction. Identifying the Theme in Literature Theme is the abstract concept explored in a piece of writing. It is a frequently recurring idea, such the importance of honesty, love… Theme is the repetition of a meaningful element in a piece… Continue Reading →

Formation of Igneous Rocks – Sample Answer

Igneous rocks are formed when magma is cooled, either inside the earth’s crust or on the earth’s surface. Plutonic igneous rocks are formed when molten rock cools and hardens below the surface e.g. granite. Volcanic igneous rocks are formed when molten rock cools and hardens on the surface, e.g. baslat…. Continue Reading →

Hardness in Water

Hard water is any water that forms a scum with soap. Soft water forms lather with soap. Hardness is caused by dissolved calcium and magnesium icons (Ca2+ and Mg2+). Temporary hardness Temporary hardness can be removed by boiling the water. Problems caused by temporary hardness: forms scum (wastes soap), limescale… Continue Reading →

The Water Treatment Process

Water treatment plants convert the raw untreated water to consumable water that is available at your home. The stages of water treatment: Sedimentation: Large particles are screened out and smaller particles are left to settle to the bottom of the sedimentation tanks. Flocculation: Aluminium sulphate (which is a flocculating agent) is added… Continue Reading →