Leaving Certificate

Powerful vision of evil in Macbeth – Essay

In Macbeth, Shakespeare presents us with a powerful vision of evil. From the very opening scene of the play, the power of evil is displayed with supernatural activities. The theme of evil and it’s consequences are clearly seen throughout the play as it changes the characters in the play and… Continue Reading →

Structure of a Volcano

A volcano is a opening in the surface of the earth which allows hot, molten rock, ash, and gases to escape from below the surface through a pipe-like outlet called a vent. These eruptions form a cone-shaped landform made of these materials. Magma chamber: A large underground pool of molten rock… Continue Reading →


Radioactivity is the spontaneous breaking up of unstable nuclei with the emission of one or more types of radiation. Background information: Radioactivity was discovered by Henri Becquerel with photographic paper. Pierre and Marie Curie discovered polonium and radium. Radiation types: alpha , beta , gamma . Alpha particles Groups of two protons and neutrons struck… Continue Reading →

Macbeth: Macduff and Lady Macduff – Essay

In most of Shakespeare’s plays, there is always the battle between good and evil. A hero who would overcome evil supernatural forces. Macduff is this essential character in the play Macbeth. Macduff is given no importance at the start of the play, but grows to be a hero in the end who… Continue Reading →

Experiment: To prepare ethene and examine its properties

Ethene gas is prepared by dehydrating ethanol (drug found in alcoholic drinks). Ethene is a colourless gas with a sweet smell. It is a insoluble in water but can dissolve in organic solvents. Main Chemicals required Ethanol – CH3CH2OH Aluminium oxide – a white powder in appearance – Al2O3 Procedure   Pour small… Continue Reading →