Controlled most of Europe and North Africa.
Evidence: ruins, coins, Latin documents.
Towns: grid pattern, Forum (marketplace), temples, amphitheatre (gladiators, Coliseum), aqueducts (water), roads (cobbled, Apian way), circus (chariot racing), sewerage system, town walls. Baths, public and private every day.
Houses: patricians lived in houses, plebeians lived in apartments.
Private house called a domus. Atrium (open courtyard in middle). Peristylium (walled garden). Tiled roofs. Mosaic floors. Villas in country.
Apartments: called insulae. Poor tenants at top, better off in middle, shops at bottom.
Family: father totally in charge. Strict discipline. Married young (12 and 14)
Clothes: knee-length tunics. Toga for men, stola for women.
Education: rich only. Secondary for boys only. Very strict. Stylus on wax tablets.
Leisure and Entertainment: gladiators in amphitheatres (Coliseum) emperor’s thumb.
Chariot racing in Circus Maximus. Plays in semi-circular theatres.
The army: legions of 5000. Highly trained. Javelins, short sword, armour and shield. Strict discipline (decimation). Forts along border of empire (Hadrian’s wall).
Giant catapults and cross-bows (ballistas).
Architecture: see Renaissance. Lots of sculpture and frescoes.
Christians buried in catacombs.
Reasons for fall of Rome:
Power struggles between those wanting to be emperor.
High cost of army.
Barbarian tribes (anyone outside empire)