Heredity: Is the passing on of features from parents to offspring by means of genes.
Gene: Is a section of DNA that causes the production of a protein.
Characteristics: Are traits or features that are inherited genetically.
Structure of DNA
A joins with T (2 hydrogen bonds) and G joins with C (3 hydrogen bonds).
Each nucleotide is made up of a phosphate, a sugar and a base.
-Different base pairs join together A-T and G-C
-The Double helix unwinds
-An Enzyme breaks the bonds between the base pairs.
-The two strands of the double helix separate
-The new copies of bases attach to the exposed complementary bases.
-The DNA molecule acts as mould or template for the new DNA that is formed.
-The new double strand rewinds to form a double helix.
-The DNA is released from the cells
-DNA is cut into fragments of different length.
-Fragments are separated according size.
Patterns produced by the fragments are compared.
RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. RNA is singled stranded. RNA consists of four chemical bases which are
A joins with U instead of T and G joins with C
Difference between DNA and RNA
-DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose and RNA contains the sugar Ribose
-DNA contains the bases A, t, G and C and RNA contains the base A, U, G and C
-DNA is a double helix strand and RNA is singled stranded.
-The DNA unwinds and the two strands separate. Enzymes are involved in this process.
-RNA bases will match up with the complementary bases.
-RNA enzyme polymerase causes RNA bases to join together.
-mRNA moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
-Ribosomes are made up of ribosomal RNA and protein
-mRNA strands form weak bonds
-In a ribosome will be the site of protein synthesis
-tRNA molecules attracted to the mRNA
-tRNA is complementary to mRNA
-A start codon begins the process of translation.
– tRNA molecules leave the ribosome leaving their amino acids.
-tRNA molecules continue to bind with the mRNA until a stop codon is reached.
-The amino acid sequence of the new protein is now complete.