Black and Tans: Former British soldiers who fought against the IRA/They fought the IRA and got their name from their uniforms (Something more than ‘They fought the IRA’ needed for 2M)
Bloody Sunday: The day when the Squad killed a number of British agents in Dublin / When the Black and Tans opened fire on the crowd in Croke Park
“The Squad”: A group of men who carried out killings on the orders of Michael Collins.
Statute of Westminster: Ireland was free to leave the Commonwealth / Ireland could change or repeal any law made for it at Westminster / It was used by deValera to justify his dismantling of the Treaty
Economic War: A trade war between Ireland and Britain / A dispute between Ireland and Britain caused by deValera not paying the land annuities / When Britain and Ireland put special tariffs on one another’s imports Ogham: A form of writing/ An alphabet/ Parallel strokes on either side or across a line/ Text carved in stone
Fulachta Fiadh: A cooking site/ Method of cooking.
Crannóg: Man-made Island/ Lake dwelling.
Night of the Long Knives: The killing of leading members of the SA by Hitler/ Destruction of the SA/ The killing of hundreds of Hitler’s opponents.
The Enabling Act: Law that allowed Hitler to rule without a parliament/ It allowed Hitler to rule by decree/ It allowed Hitler to rule as a dictator.
Nűremberg Laws: Anti-Jewish racial laws/ Marriages between Germans and Jews were forbidden/ Jews were deprived of their German citizenship/ Jews were forced to wear the Star of David (as a symbol of their identity).
Dubbing: The ceremony at which the squire became a knight.
Chivalry: (The knight’s) code of conduct/ The qualities [Courage, courtesy, etc.] required of an ideal knight.
Jousting: Combat between two knights on horseback/ (Two) knights with lances charging at each other.
Acerbo Law: A law that allowed the party with the largest vote take two-thirds of the seats in parliament.
Blackshirts: Mussolini’s uniformed followers/ The Squadristi.
Lateran Treaty: An agreement between Mussolini and the Pope/ It created an independent Vatican State.
Rome-Berlin Axis: An alliance with Hitler.
Containment: US policy to stop the spread of Communism.
Marshall Plan: Money provided by the US for the re-building of Europe after the war/ A recovery programme for Europe after the war.
Satellite States: Communist states in Eastern Europe that were linked to the Soviet Union.
Iron Curtain: A term used to describe the spread of Communism in Eastern Europe at the end of the war/ The dividing line between Communist-controlled Eastern Europe and the countries of Western Europe.
Benelux Union: An (economic) agreement between Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg.
ESCS: An agreement by (6) countries to allow for the free movement of coal and steel between them..
CAP: EU policy guaranteeing farmers a fixed price for their produce.
Treaty of Rome, 1957: The treaty that established the EEC/ An agreement by (6) countries for the free movement of people, goods and services between them.
Empire: The foreign lands acquired by various European powers/ A number of states or peoples under the control of a common ruler.
Imperialism: The building up of empires/ European states taking over large parts of the world.
Nationalism: The belief that each race of people should be self-governing.
Decolonisation: Withdrawal of (European) countries from former colonies.
Propaganda: Spreading information to promote or damage a government, or group or belief/ The information used to promote or damage a government, group or belief
Archive: Organised collection of documents or photographs or films etc./ A place where such collections are stored
Bias: One-sidedness [in dealing with historical issues]
Microliths: Tiny pieces of flint [used for arrowheads or tools]
Saddle stone: A quern/ which was used for grinding corn
Capstone: Large stone which tops off a dolmen
Maginot Line: French defence line on the Franco-German border/Fortifications built by France to prevent an attack by Germany
Afrika Korps: German troops serving in North Africa/ Rommel’s troops
Lebensraum: Land in Eastern Europe that Germany would take over
Cloisters: Where monks walked/ where novices were taught.
Refectory: Dining-room/ where monks ate their meals together
Torc: A type of necklace/ Jewellery
Aos Dána: People who had special skills
Demesne: The portion of the land that the lord kept for his own use
Serf: A farm worker at the bottom of the social scale/ A semi-slave on the manor/ The person who worked the lord’s fields, etc.
Tithe: (One-tenth of) worker’s produce that was given to the priest
Pottage: (Thick) soup or stew
Heresy: Belief or practice contrary to (Catholic) church teaching
Nepotism: The giving of (church) positions to one’s relatives.
Simony: Buying/selling of church privileges (e.g. pardons), church offices or religious objects.
Pluralism: Holding of more than one (church) office at a time
Primary source: First-hand evidence / Evidence from the period being studied
Charter: A royal document granting certain rights
Curfew: Time to put out the fire [Medieval meaning of the term]
Pillory: Framework to restrain someone for public punishment
Church records: They contain details of births and marriages
School roll books: They are a record of the numbers, sex and ages of those attending a particular school.
Census: Provide information on population changes over time / Contain details on such social issues as housing, literacy etc.
Fief: Grant of land (made by the king) / The land held by a vassal.
Manor: A village and its farmland / A very large farm / The amount of land granted by the king for one knight-service.
Vassal: Person who received a fief from his lord or king / Person who provided soldiers to fight for the lord or king.
Sfumato: Allowing tones or colours to shade gradually into each other / Making subjects blend in with the background / Blurring of the outlines of figures
Perspective: Three-dimensional paintings / Giving an impression of depth.
Common market: The abolition of tariffs within the EEC / The original six-member EEC / A former name for the EU.
Peaceful co-existence: Countries with different ideologies getting along together / A thaw in the cold war.
Gerrymander: The rigging of constituency boundaries by Unionists
Blueshirts: Protected Cumann na nGaedheal from IRA attacks / Army Comrades’ Association / An organisation for ex-Free State army members.
Rationing: War-time restrictions on the amount of food, fuel, etc.. an individual or family could get.
B specials: A part-time police force in Northern Ireland / An anti-Nationalist police force
Keep : the main tower or stronghold or building of a castle / the building in the castle where the lord and lady lived.
Moat: a water-filled ditch around a castle.
Portcullis: a strong grating protecting the entrance of the castle that was raised to allow people to enter or leave.
Turret : a small tower on the outer walls of the castle or on the top of the keep
Portolan charts: plotting course / harbour-finding /sea maps
Astrolabe : calculating latitude / finding one’s position
Log and Line : calculating speed / distance travelled by the ship
Caravels : the ships used in the voyages.
Lazy-beds : ridges where potatoes were grown / method of growing potatoes
Middleman: a tenant who rented some of his land to smaller farmers.
Eviction : being thrown out of one’s land and/or home.
Conacre : land rented out for a season to grow potatoes / rented potato ground / land rented for a season
Cottier : a labourer who worked for a farmer in return for the use of a small plot of land / a farm labourer who had just a tiny piece of land
The Anglo-Irish Treaty: Agreement between Britain and Ireland that ended the war of Independence / Agreement that gave us independence / Treaty signed by Collins and Griffith / Any Article of the Treaty
Flying Columns: IRA (Volunteer) units using hit-and-run tactics / Groups of full-time IRA fighters.
Auxiliaries: Former British army officers recruited to fight the rebels / A
The Government of Ireland Act: It set up two parliaments in Ireland / It created a separate Northern Ireland state division of the Police
The Squad: A team of men under Michael Collins who killed British agents / Assassins who worked for Collins