# Tetrahedral carbon compounds

In saturated organic compounds, all of the carbon atoms are tetrahedral.

## Chloroalkanes

• A chloroalkane is an alkane in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced with chlorine atoms.
• Chloroform ($CHCl_{3}$) is an example of a chloroalkane.
• Chloroalkane’s main uses:
• For removing oil and grease marks from machinery and in dry cleaning of clothes.
• Paint stripper.
• Correcting fluid, e.g. Tippex.

## Alcohols

• The alcohols form a homologous series of organic compounds, of general formula $C_{n}H_{2n+1}OH$.
• The -OH group is called the hydroxyl group and is the functional group of alcohols.
• functional group is an atom or group of atoms which are responsible for the characteristic properties of a series of organic compounds.
• Alcohols may be classified as primary, secondary or territory alcohols.
• primary alcohol is one where the carbon atom joined to the -OH group is attached to only one other carbon atom. e.g. ethanol.
• In a secondary alcohol, the carbon atom joined to the -OH group is attached to two other carbon atoms. e.g propan-2-ol.
• In a tertiary alcohol, the carbon atom joined to the -OH group is attached to three other carbon atoms, e.g. 2-methylpropan-2-ol.
• The best known alcohol is ethanol. Ethanol is found in alcoholic drinks.
• Ethanol for alcoholic drinks is made by fermentation of sugars in fruits which contain sugar glucose. e.g. grapes.
• In fermentation, enzymes in yeast break down the sugar to give carbon dioxide and ethanol.
• Ethanol is also used was a fuel and as a solvent. e.g. paints, perfumes, after-shaves, etc.

# Planar carbon compounds

Planar compounds have a carbon-carbon or carbon-oxygen double bonds. The atoms in the double bonds are planar.

## Aldehydes

• Aldehydes form a homologous series of organic compounds containing the -CHO functional group. Its general formula is $C_{n}H_{2n+1}CHO$.
• All aldehydes contain the carbonyl group.
• They are named by replacing the -e at the end of the corresponding alkane name with -al.
• Dipole-dipole attractions exist between adjacent aldehyde molecules of a carbon-oxygen double bond ( C = O ).
• This leads to increase in boiling points when compared with similar relative molecular mass but lower than those comparable alcohols.
• The only aromatic aldehyde on our course is benzaldehyde. It is found in the oil of almonds.

## Ketones

• The functional group of the ketones is >C=O.
• Ketones are named by replacing the -e at the end of the corresponding alkane name with -one.
• The physical properties of ketones are very similar to those of aldehydes, but the lower ketones are liquids at room temperature and are soluble in water.
• Uses: propanone is used as solvent. e.g. for nail varnish remover.

## Carboxylic acids

• Carboxylic acids are a family of organic compounds that contain the carboxyl functional group, -COOH. Its general formula is $C_{n}H_{2n+1}COOH$.
• Carboxylic acids are named by replacing the -e at the end of the corresponding alkane name with -oic acid.
• Methanoic acid is found in the stings of nettles and ants.
• Uses:
• Ethanoic acid is used to make a chemical called cellulose acetate, which is used in varnishes, lacquers, photographic film for camera and a type of textile called reyon.
• Propanoic acid, benzoic acid are used as food preservatives.

## Esters

• Esters are a family of compounds of general formula RCOOR’. The functional group is the -COO- group.
• They have low boiling points.
• They have strong and pleasant smells.
• Fats and oils are long chain carboxylic acids which are naturally occurring esters.
• Uses: Ethyl ethanoate is used as a solvent for printing inks and paints.

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