# Tests for Anions

## Chloride ion

Test: Add a few drops of Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) solution.

Observation: A white precipitate is formed.

$Ag^{+}+Cl^{-} \rightarrow AgCl\downarrow$

## Sulfate ion

Test: Add BaCl2 solution to a solution of the solid.

Observation: white precipitate is formed.

$Ba^{2+}+SO_{4}^{2-} \rightarrow BaSO_{4}\downarrow$ $Ba^{2+}+SO_{3}^{2-} \rightarrow BaSO_{3}\downarrow$

## Carbonate ion

Test: Add dilute HCL to the solid.

Observation: Fizzing. The gas that is given off turns limewater milky.

$CO{_{3}}^{2-}+ 2H \rightarrow CO_{2} + H_{2}O$ $HCO{_{3}}^{-}+ H^{+} \rightarrow CO_{2} + H_{2}O$ $Ca(OH)_{2}+CO_{2} \rightarrow CaCO_{3}\downarrow + H_{2}O$

## Nitrate ion

Test: Brown ring test. Add freshly prepared FeSO4 solution to the solid. Add concentrated sulfuric acid.

Observation: A brown ring is formed at the junction of the two liquids due to the presence of nitrate ion.

[ *Note for Higher Level: You also need to know the test for sulfate, Hydrogen-carbonate and phosphate ions. ]

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